In April 2009 he became a director of British Petroleum and was given oversight of the company's activities in the Americas and Asia. In June 2010 he was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of BP's Gulf Coast Restoration Organization working with the oil leakage in the Gulf of Mexico, which affects five U.S. states. As head of the organization, he is outmost responsible for the cleaning work in the Gulf, the cooperation with authorities, informing the public about BP's activities surrounding the disaster and analyzing the damage caused by the disaster.
In July 2010, BP announced that Dudley would replace BP Chief Executive Tony Hayward as the company's CEO on 1 October 2010.
Dudley is married to Mary Dudley. They have two children. He was formerly a swimming star under coach Don Watson at Hinsdale Center High School in Illinois before he broke his collar bone.