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The Ebro is one of the most important rivers in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the biggest river by discharge volume in Spain.

Its source is in Fontibre (Cantabria), from the Latin words Fontes Iberis, source of the Ebro. The upper Ebro rushes through rocky gorges in Burgos Province. Flowing roughly eastwards it begins forming a wider river valley of limestone rocks when it reaches Navarre and La Rioja thanks to many tributaries flowing down from the Iberian System on one side, and the Navarre mountains and the western Pyrénées, on the other. There, the climate with the valley isolated from sea air masses by surrounding mountains becomes progressively more Continental with extremer temperatures and drier characteristics and therefore typically experiencing hot, sometimes very hot and dry summers that closely resemble summers seen in arid and semiarid climates.

The Greeks called the river Ίβηρ (Hibēr), and the Romans called it the Hiber, the Iber, or Iberus Flumen, leading to its current name. The Iberian peninsula and the Hibēri or Ibēri (the people of the area) were named after the river.

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