Huub Toussaint

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Huub Wetsuits
Huub Toussaint is a Professor of Human Movement Science in the Academy for Physical Education and Associated Professor of Biomechanics at the Free University in Amsterdam, Netherlands. He has also been the Principal Investigator at the Swimming Research Center in Amsterdam from 1999 to the present. He also helped developed Huub Wetsuits, an innovative wetsuit line for triathletes and open water swimmers that are created through a combination of research, science and practicality that is backed by Turning Points Investments.

Contents

Professional Career

- Principal Investigator Amsterdam Spine Unit (1988-1999)
- Daily supervisor of the Ph.D. students D. Commissaris (PhD 1997), J. van Dieën (Ph.D. 1993), I. Kingma (PhD 1998) and M de Looze (Ph.D. 1992); guest-supervisor of F. Ogita (PhD 2000), J. Cappaert (2005)
- PhD thesis examiner Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä (2002), Faculty of Physical Education, University of Oslo (2004)
- PhD thesis examiner Department of Sport Science, University of Lille, France (2006)
- PhD thesis examiner, Department Sport Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand (2007)
- Guest researcher Counsilman Chair in Aquatic Research, ICAR, US Olympic Training Center, Colorado Springs USA (1988)
- Member Editorial Consultant Board Journal of Biomechanics.
- Grant applications:
Hoogovens (physical load of brick-layers)
Dutch Union of Refuse Collectors (physical load of refuse collectors)
Research grant of the Institute for fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Science (Development distribution model to estimate the loading of the lumbar spine)
Ministry of Economic Affairs (Development of an Ambulant Registration System for Back-load)
Vrije Universiteit Brussels (physical load of Nurses)
NOC*NSF/KNZB (“Effect of technique on wave making resistance” and “Technique and propulsion”, 6000 EURO)
Development of Digital Course in Research Methods of Human Movement Science (distance learning), € 350,000.=
InnoSport grant: € 30.000,= for developing and implementing a performance model of the start; total grant is € 150,000.=
SBIR grant of € 300.000,= for developing iHiT model implementing TNO-IP

Lectures

- 1990: Key-note lecture: International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Liverpool: Performance determining factors in front crawl swimming
- 1993: Key-note Lecture Xth FINA World Sport Medicine Congress, Kyoto: Mechanics and energetics of front crawl swimming
- 1994: invited lecture International Congress Sports Medicine in Brugge, Belgium ‘The determination of (over-) training effects in swimming’
- 1997: invited lecture World Congress of Biomechanics in Amsterdam "Biomechanical aspects of the coordination of lifting"
- 1997: invited lecture Hamburg Construction Workers Symposion, Hamburg, "Biomechanics and Occupational Low Back Pain"
- 1998: invited lecture European Orthopaedic Research Society in Amsterdam "Lumbar Spine Dynamics; How and Why"
- 2000: invited lecture XVIII International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports, Hong Kong "An alternative fluid dynamic explanation for propulsion in front crawl swimming"
- 2001: invited lecture American Congress of Sports Medicine, Baltimore: “The FastSkin: Hip, Hype, but does it work?”
- 2002: Key-note lecture: 25o Congresso de Natação, Portimão, Portugal: “Propulsion mechanics in front crawl swimming”
- 2002: Key-note lecture: XXth International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, Caceres Spanje: “Biomechanics of propulsion and drag in front crawl swimming”.
- 2002: invited lecture: Commonwealth Games Sport Science Conference, Manchester; “Propulsion mechanics and wave drag in front crawl swimming”
- 2002: invited lecture: Measuring Behavior 2002, Amsterdam “Measurement of active drag in swimming”.
- 2003: invited lecture: 10th Benelux Congress of Zoology, Leiden: “Power requirements for swimming a 50 m front crawl world record”.
- 2003: Invited lectures during Lecture tour in Japan in Kanoya, Tsuruoka, Tsukuba, and Kurashiki.
- 2004: Invited lecture at 4th International Swimming Research Symposium, Tokyo (22 February 2004).
- 2004: Guest Professor University of Tsukuba: Intensive Doctoral Course Swimming Research, Doctoral Program Center of Excellence Human Movement Science, University of Tsukuba (15 hours of lectures).
- 2004: Invited Lecture International Swimming Conference Paris, France
- 2005: Invited lecture at 5th International Swimming Research Symposium, Tokyo (February 2004).
- 2006: Invited Keynote Lecture at Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Conference in Porto Portugal.
- 2007: Invited Lecture at National German Swim Coaches Assembly, Braunschweig, Germany.
- 2007: Invited Lecture and Coach Clinic Slovenian Swimming Federation, Ljubljana, Sloveia

Reviews

- Toussaint, H.M. and Beek, P.J. (1992) Biomechanics of competitive front crawl swimming. Sports Medicine. 13, 8-24.
- Toussaint, H.M. and Hollander, A.P. (1994) Energetics of competitive swimming - implications for training-programs. Sports Medicine 18, 384-405.
- Toussaint, H.M., Hollander, A.P., Berg, C. van den and Vorontsov, A. (2000) Biomechanics of swimming. In: Garrett, W. E. and Kirkendall, D. T. (Eds.), Exercise and Sport Science. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 639-660.

External links

Scientific Publications (International Scientific Journals)

Avis, F.J., Hoving, A. and Toussaint, H.M., 1985. A dynamometer for the measurement of force, velocity, work and power during an explosive leg extension. European Journal of Applied Physiology 54, 210-215.
Avis, F.J., Toussaint, H.M., Huijing, P.A. and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van, 1986. Positive work as a function of eccentric load in maximal leg extension movements. European Journal of Applied Physiology 55, 562-568.
Bot, S.D.M., Caspers, M., Royen, B.J. van, Toussaint, H.M. and Kingma, I., 1999. Biomechanical analysis of posture in patients with spinal kyphosis due to ankylosing spondylitis: a pilot study. British Society for Rheumatology 38, 441-443.
Clarys, J.P., Cabri, J., Witte, B. de, Toussaint, H.M., Groot, G. de, Huijing, P.A. and Hollander, A.P., 1988. Electromyography applied to sport ergonomics. Ergonomics 31, 1605-1620.
Commissaris, D. A. C. M. and Toussaint, H. M., 1996. Dissociated oxygen-uptake response to an incremental intermittent repetitive lifting and lowering exercise in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 74, 264-273.
Commissaris, D.A.C.M. and Toussaint, H.M., 1997. Anticipatory postural adjustments in a bimanual, whole body lifting task with an object of known weight. Human Movement Science 16, 407-431.
Commissaris, D. A. C. M. and Toussaint, H. M., 1997. Load knowledge affects low-back loading and control of balance in lifting tasks. Ergonomics 40, 559-575.
Commissaris, D.A.C.M., Toussaint, H.M. and Hirschfeld, H., 2001. Anticipatory postural adjustments in a bimanual, whole-body lifting task seem not only aimed at minimising anterior-posterior centre of mass displacements. Gait & Posture 14, 44-55.
Dieen, .H. van, Weinans, H. and Toussaint, H.M., 1999. Fractures of the lumbar vertebral endplate in the etiology of low back pain: a hypothesis on the causative role of spinal compression in aspecific low back pain. Medical Hypotheses 53, 246-252.
Dieën, J.H. van, Böke, B., Oosterhuis, W. and Toussaint, H.M., 1996. The influence of torque and velocity on erector spinae muscle fatigue and its relationship to changes of electromyogram spectrum density. European Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 310-315.
Dieën, J.H. van, Burg, P. van der , Raaijmakers, T.A.J. and Toussaint, H.M., 1998. Effects of repetitive lifting on the kinematics, inadequate anticipatory control or adaptive changes? Journal of Motor Behavior 30, 20-32.
Dieën, J.H. van, Creemers, M., Draisma, I., Toussaint, H.M. and Kingma, I., 1994. Repetitive lifting and spinal shrinkage, effects of age and lifting technique. Clinical Biomechanics 9, 367-374.
Dieën, J.H. van, Dekkers, J.J.M., Groen, V., Toussaint, H.M. and Meijer, O.G., 2001. Within-subject variability in low-back load in a repetitively performed, mildly constrained lifting task. Spine 26, 1799-1804.
Dieen, J.H. van, Hoozemans, J.J.M. and Toussaint, H.M., 1999. Stoop or squat: a review of biomechanical studies on lifting technique. Clinical Biomechanics 14, 685-696.
Dieën, J.H. van, Oude Vrielink, H.H.E., Housheer, F.A.F., Lötters, F.J.B. and Toussaint, H.M., 1993. Trunk extensor endurance and its relationship to electromyogram parameters. European Journal of Applied Physiology 66, 388-396.
Dieën, J.H. van, Oude Vrielink, H.H.E. and Toussaint, H.M., 1993. An investigation into the relevance of the pattern of temporal activation with respect to erector spinae muscle endurance. European Journal of Applied Physiology 66, 70-75.
Dieën, J.H. van, Thissen, C., Ven, A. van de and Toussaint, H.M., 1991. The electro-mechanical delay of the erector spinae muscle: influence of rate of force development, fatigue and electrode location. European Journal of Applied Physiology 63, 216-222.
Dieën, J.H. van and Toussaint, H.M., 1993. Spinal shrinkage as a parameter of functional load of the human spine. Spine 18, 1504-1514.
Dieën, J.H. van and Toussaint, H.M., 1995. Application of the maximum energy criterion to describe the strength of the motion segment under axial compression. Spine 20, 518-525.
Dieën, J.H. van and Toussaint, H.M., 1997. Evaluation of the probability of spinal damage caused by sustained cyclic compression loading. Human Factors 39, 469-480.
Dieën, J.H. van and Toussaint, H.M., 2002. Lifting styles in elderly subjects. Spine 27, 329-330.
Dieën, J.H. van, Toussaint, H.M., Maurice, C. and Mientjes, M., 1996. Fatigue related changes of the coordination of lifting and their effect on low back load. Journal of Motor Behavior 28, 304-314.
Dieën, J.H. van, Toussaint, H.M. and Oude Vrielink, H.H.E., 1994. Recruitment of trunk extensor muscles and endurance. Journal of Biomechanics 27, 702.
Dieën, J.H. van, Toussaint, H.M., Stam, C. and Hol, J., 1994. Visco-elasticity of the individual spine. Clinical Biomechanics 9, 61-63.
Dieën, J.H. van, Toussaint, H.M., Thissen, C. and Ven, A. van der, 1993. Spectral analysis of erector spinae EMG during intermittent isometric fatiguing exercise. Ergonomics 36, 407-414.
Dolan, P., Kingma, I., van Dieen, J.H., de Looze, M.P., Toussaint, H.M., Baten, C.T.M. and Adams, M.A., 1999. Dynamic forces on the lumbar spine during manual handling: can they be estimated using EMG techniques alone? Spine 24, 698-703.
Dolan, P., Adams, M.A., Kingma, I., Looze, M.P. de, Dieën, J.H. van and Toussaint, H.M., 1998. High fluctuating muscle forces act on the lumbar spine during lifting. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume 80B, suppl. II, 178.
Dolan, P., Kingma, I., Looze, M.P. de, Dieën, J.H. van, Toussaint, H.M., Baten, C.T.M. and Adams, M.A., 2001. An EMG technique for measuring spinal loading during asymmetric lifting. Clinical Biomechanics 16, S17-S24.
Donkers, P.C.M., Toussaint, H.M., Molenbroek, J.F.M. and Steenbekkers, L.P.A., 1993. Recommendations for the assessment and design of young children s bicycles on the basis of anthropometric data. Applied Ergonomics 24, 109-118.
Frings-Dresen, M., Kemper, H.C.G., Stassen, A.R.A., Markslag, A.M.T., Looze, M.P. de and Toussaint, H.M., 1995. Guidelines for energetic load in three methods of refuse collecting. Ergonomics 38, 2056-2064.
Hollander, A.P., Groot, G. de, Ingen Schenau, G.J. van, Toussaint, H.M., Best, H. de, Peeters, W., Meulemans, A. and Schreurs, A.W., 1986. Measurement of active drag forces during swimming. Journal of Sports Sciences 4, 21-30.
Hollander, A.P., Toussaint, H.M., Groot, G. de and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van, 1985. Active drag and swimming performance. New Zealand Journal of Sports Medicine 13, 110-113.
Kingma, I., Baten, C.T.M. , Dolan, P. , Adams, M.A., Toussaint, H.M. , Dieën, J.H. van and Looze, M.P. de, 2001. Lumbar loading during lifting: a comparative study of three measurement techniques. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 11, 337-345.
Kingma, I., Dieen, J.H. van, Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Dolan, P. and Baten, C.T.M., 1999. On the use of axis systems in quentification of lumbar loading during asymmetric lifting. Journal of Biomechanics 32, 637-638.
Kingma, I., Dieën, J.H. van, Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Dolan, P. and Baten, C.T.M., 1998. Asymmetric low back loading in asymmetric lifting movements is not prevented by pelvic twist. Journal of Biom echanics 31, 527-534.
Kingma, I., J. H. van Dieën, and H. M. Toussaint. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting. Ergonomics. 48:1020-1030, 2005.
Kingma, I., Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Klijnsma, H.G. and Bruijnen, T.B.M., 1996. Validation of a full body 3-D dynamic linked segment model. Human Movement Science 15, 833-860.
Kingma, I., Savelsbergh, G.J.P. and Toussaint, H.M., 1999. Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions. Experimental Brain Research 124, 422-428.
Kingma, I., Toussaint, H.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M., Hoozemans, M.J.M. and Ober, M.J., 1995. Optimizing the determination of the body center of gravity. Journal of Biomechanics 28, 1137-1142.
Kingma, I., Toussaint, H.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M. and Savelsbergh, G.J.P., 1999. Adaptation of center of mass control under microgravity in a whole- body lifting task. Experimental Brain Research 125, 35-42.
Kingma, I., Toussaint, H.M., Looze, M.P. de and Dieën, J.H. van, 1996. Segment inertial parameter evaluation in two anthropometric models by application of a dynamic linked segment model. Journal of Biomechanics 29, 693-704.
Kingma, I., J. H. van Dieën, and H. M. Toussaint, 2005. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting. Ergonomics. 48:1020-1030.
Looze, M.P., Bussmann, J.B.J., Kingma, I. and Toussaint, H.M., 1992. Validation of a linked segment model. Journal of Biomechanics 25, 735. Looze, M.P. de, Bussmann, J.B.J., Kingma, I. and Toussaint, H.M., 1992. Different methods to estimate total power and its components in lifting. Journal of Biomechanics 25, 1089-1095.
Looze, M.P. de, Bussmann, J.B.J., Kingma, I. and Toussaint, H.M., 1992. Validation of a dynamic linked segment model to calculate joint moments in lifting. Clinical Biomechanics 7, 161-169.
Looze, M.P. de, Commissaris, D.A.C.M., Jans, M.P., Toussaint, H.M. and Sargeant, A.J., 1994. The relationships between energy expenditure and positive and negative mechanical work components in repetitive lifting and lowering. Journal of Applied Physiology 77, 420-426.
Looze, M.P. de, Kingma, I., Thunnissen, W., Vanwijk, M.J. and Toussaint, H.M., 1994. The evaluation of a practical biomechanical model estimating lumbar moments in occupational activities. Ergonomics 37, 1495-1502.
Looze, M.P. de, Stassen, A., Markslag, A.M.T., Borst, M.J., Wooning, M.M. and Toussaint, H.M., 1995. Mechanical loading on the low back in three methods of refuse collecting. Ergonomics 38, 1993-2006.
Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M., Jans, M.P. and Sargeant, A.J., 1994. Relationships between energy-expenditure and positive and negative mechanical work in repetitive lifting and lowering. Journal of Applied Physiology 77, 420-426.
Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Dieën, J.H. van and Kemper, H.C.G., 1993. Joint moments and muscle activity in the lower extremities and lower back in lifting and lowering tasks. Journal of Biomechanics 26, 1067-1076.
Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Ensink, J., Mangnus, C. and Beek, A. van der, 1994. The validity of visual observations to register postural aspects of a manual materials handling job. Ergonomics 37, 1335-1343.
Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Nibbelke, R.J. and Eelderink, H.A., 1992. Effects on efficiency in repetitive lifting of load and frequency combinations at a constant total power output. European Journal of Applied Physiology 65, 469-474.
Looze, M.P. de, Visser, B., Houting, I., Rooy, M.A.G. van, Dieën, J.H. van and Toussaint, H.M., 1996. Weight and frequency effect on spinal loading in a bricklaying task. Journal of Biomechanics 29, 1425-1433.
Looze, M.P. de, Zinzen, E., Caboor, D., Heyblom, P., Bree, E. van, Roy, P. van, Toussaint, H.M. and Clarijs, J.P., 1994. Effect of individually chosen bed-height adjustments on the low-back stress of nurses. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 20, 427-434.
Ogita, F, Stam, R.F., Tazawa, H.O., Toussaint, H.M. and Hollander, A.P., 2000. Oxygen uptake in one-legged and two-legged exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercises 32, 1737-1742.
Royen, B.J. van, Toussaint, H.M., Kingma, I., Bot, S.D.M., Caspers, M., Harlaar, J. and Wuisman, P., 1998. Biomechanical analysis of posture in patients with spinal kyphosis due to ankylosing spondylitis: a pilot study. European Spine Journal 7, 408-412.
de Ruiter, C.J., Vermeulen, G., Toussaint, H.M. and de Haan, A., 2007. Isometric knee-extensor torque development and jump height in volleyball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 39, 1336-1346.
Sanders, R., Rushall, B., Toussaint, H.M., Stager, J. and Takagi, H., 2001 (electronic journal). Bodysuit yourself: but first think about it. Journal of Turbulence, 2, 20/1-20/12
Toussaint, H.M., 1990. Differences in propelling efficiency between competitive and triathlon swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22, 409-415.
Toussaint, H.M., Baar, C.E. van, Langen, P.P. van, Looze, M.P. de and Dieën, J.H. van, 1992. Coordination of the leg muscles in backlift and leglift. Journal of Biomechanics 25, 1279-1289.
Toussaint, H.M. and Beek, P.J., 1992. Biomechanics of competitive front crawl swimming. Sports Medicine 13, 8-24.
Toussaint, H.M., Beelen, A., Rodenburg, A., Sargeant, A.J., Groot, G. de, Hollander, A.P. and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van, 1988. Propelling efficiency of front crawl swimming. Journal of Applied Physiology 65, 2506-2512.
Toussaint, H. M., Berg, C. van den and Beek, W.J., 2002. Pumped-up propulsion during front crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 34, 314-319
Toussaint, H.M., Bruinink, L., Coster, R., Looze, M. de, Rossem, B. van, Veenen, R. van and Groot, G. de, 1989. Effect of a triathlon wet suit on drag during swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercises 21, 325-328.
Toussaint H. M., Carol A., Kranenborg H. & Truijens M.J. (2006). Effect of fatigue on stroking characteristics in an arms-only 100-m front crawl race. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 38:1635-1642.
Toussaint, H.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M. and Beek, P.J., 1997. Anticipatory postural adjustments in the back and leg lift. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29, 1216-1224.
Toussaint, H.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M., Dieën, J.H. van, Reijnen, J.S., Praet, S.F.E. and Beek, P.J., 1995. Controlling the ground reaction force during lifting. Journal of Motor Behavior 27, 225-234.
Toussaint, H.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M., Hoozemans, M.J.M., Ober, M.J. and Beek, P.J., 1997. Anticipatory postural adjustments prior to load pick-up in a bi-manual whole body lifting task. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29, 1208-1215.
Toussaint, H.M., Faber, M.N., Michies, Y.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M. and Dieën, J.H. van, 1998. Scaling anticipatory postural adjustments dependent on confidence of load estimation in a bi-manual whole body lifting task. Experimental Brain Research 120, 85-94.
Toussaint, H.M., Groot, G. de, Savelberg, H.H.C.M., Vervoorn, K., Hollander, A.P. and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van, 1988. Active drag related to velocity in male and female swimmers. Journal of Biomechanics 21, 435-438.
Toussaint, H.M. and Hollander, A.P., 1994. Energetics of competitive swimming - implications for training-programs. Sports Medicine 18, 384-405.
Toussaint, H.M., Janssen, T. and Kluft, M., 1989. The influence of paddles on propulsion. Swimming Technique 4, 28-32.
Toussaint, H.M., Janssen, T. and Kluft, M., 1991. Effect of propelling surface size on the mechanics and energetics of front crawl swimming. Journal of Biomechanics 24, 205-211.
Toussaint, H.M., Knops, W., Groot, G. de and Hollander, A.P., 1990. The mechanical efficiency of front crawl swimming. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22, 402-408.
Toussaint, H.M., Looze, M. de, Rossem, B. van, Leijdekkers, M. and Dignum, H., 1990. The effect of growth on drag in young swimmers. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 6, 18-28.
Toussaint, H.M., Meulemans, A., Groot, G. de, Hollander, A.P., Schreurs, A.W. and Vervoorn, K., 1987. Respiratory valve for oxygen uptake measurements during swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology 56, 363-366.
Toussaint, H. M., P. E. Roos, and S. Kolmogorov. The determination of drag in front crawl swimming. Journal of Biomechanics 37:1655-1663, 2004.
Toussaint, H. M. and M. J. Truijens. How to predict peak front crawl swimming performance? Japanese Journal of Sciences in Swimming and Water Exercises. 7:5-15, 2004.
Toussaint, H. M. and M. J. Truijens. Biomechanical aspects of peak performance in human swimming. Animal Biology. 55:17-40, 2005.
Toussaint H.M. & Truijens M.J. (2006). Power requirements for swimming a world-record 50-m front crawl. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 1:61-64.
Toussaint, H. M. and M. J. Truijens, 2006. Biomechanical aspects of peak performance in human swimming. Power requirements for swimming a world-record 50-m front crawl. 1:61-64.
Toussaint, H.M., Truijens, M., Elzinga, M.J., Ven, A. van de, Best, H. de, Snabel, B. and Groot, G. de, 2002. Effect of a Fast-Skin 'Body' Suit on drag during front crawl swimming. Sport Biomechanics 1, 1-10.
Toussaint, H.M. and Vervoorn, K., 1990. Effects of specific high resistance training in the water on competitive swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine 11, 228-233.
Toussaint, H.M., Wakayoshi, K., Hollander, A.P. and Ogita, F., 1998. Simulated front crawl swimming performance related to critical speed and critical power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30, 144-151.
Toussaint, H.M., Winter, A.F. de, Haas, Y. de, Looze, M.P. de, Dieën, J.H. van and Kingma, I., 1995. Flexion relaxation during lifting: Implications for torque production by muscle activity and tissue strain at the lumbo-sacral joint. Journal of Biomechanics 28, 199-210.
Truijens, M.J., Toussaint, H.M., Dow, J. and Levine, B.D., 2003. Effect of high-intensity hypoxic training on sea-level swimming performances. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 733-743.
Truijens, M. J., H. M. Toussaint, and B. D. Levine, 2004.. Hoogtetraining binnen de zwemsport: wetenschap of religie? (Deel 1). Sportgericht. 58:13-18.
Truijens, M. J., H. M. Toussaint, and B. D. Levine, 2005. Hoogtetraining binnen de zwemsport: wetenschap of religie? (Deel 2). Sportgericht. 59:18-25,.
Vaart, A.J.M. van der, Savelberg, H.H.C.M., Groot, G. de, Hollander, A.P., Toussaint, H.M. and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van, 1987. An estimation of active drag in front crawl swimming. Journal of Biomechanics 20, 543-546.
Welbergen, E., Kemper, H.C.G., Knibbe, J.J., Toussaint, H.M. and Clijssen, L. (1991) Efficiency and effectiveness of stoop and squat lifting at different techniques. Ergonomics. 34, 613-624.

Scientific Publications (Proceedings and textbook chapters; not including 1 page abstracts)

Clarys, J.P., Toussaint, H.M., Bollens, E., Vaes, W., Huijing, P.A., Groot, G. de, Hollander, A.P. and Cabri, J. (1988) Muscular specificity and intensity in swimming a mechanical resistance: surface EMG in MAD- and free swimming. In: Ungerechts, B. E., Reischle, K. and Wilke, K. (Eds.), Swimming V. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Champaign, Ill., pp. 191- 199.
Commissaris, D.A.C.M., Reijnen, J.S., Praet, S.F.E. and Toussaint, H.M. (1993) Dynamic balance control in lifting. In: Bouisset, S., M tral, S. and Monod, H. (Eds.), Abstract book XIVth Congress of the ISB. Paris, pp. 274-275.
Commissaris, D.A.C.M. and Toussaint, H.M. (1995) Balance related postural adjustments when lifting an object of known weight. In: H kkinen, K., Keskinen, K. L., Komi, P. V. and Mero, A. (Eds.), Xth ISB Congress abstract book. Gummerus, Jyvaskyla, pp. 180-181.
Dieën, J.H. van, Bunkens, L., Looze, M.P. de and Toussaint, H.M. (1997) Assessment of trunk extensor muscle endurance on the basis of EMG-data obtained during short isometric contractions. In: Seppälä, P., Luoparjärvi, T., Nygård, C.-H. and Mattila, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, pp. 542-544.
Dieën, J.H. van and Toussaint, H.M. (1992) Prediction of vertebral end-plate fractures in different loading protocols. In: Hagberg, M. and Kilbom (Eds.), International Scientific Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders PREMUS. Arbetsmilj institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 302-304.
Frings-Dresen, M., Stassen, A., Markslag, A., Kemper, H.C.G., Looze, M.P. de and Toussaint, H.M. (1994) Maximum acceptable workload for male refuse collectors in relation to age. In: Mc Fadden, S., Innes, L. and Hill, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the Int. Ergonomics Association. Human Factors Association of Canada, Toronto, pp. 256-259.
Hollander, A.P., Groot, G. de, Ingen, Schenau, G.J. van, Kahman, R. and Toussaint, H.M. (1988) Contribution of the legs in front crawl swimming. In: Ungerechts, B. E., Reischle, K. and Wilke, K. (Eds.), Swimming V. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Champaign, Ill., pp. 39-43. Hollander, A.P. and Toussaint, H.M. (1989) Performance determining factors in free style swimming. In: (Eds.), Abstracts of VIIIth World Fina Medical Congress. London, pp. 39-40.
Huijing, P.A., Clarys, J.P., Toussaint, H.M., Groot, G. de, Hollander, A.P., Vervoorn, K., Mackay, R. and Savelberg, H. (1986) Active drag related to body dimensions. In: Ungerechts, B. (Eds.), Abstracts- 5th International symposium of Biomechanics and medicine in swimming. Fahnemann, Bockenem, pp. 48.
Huijing, P.A., Toussaint, H.M., Clarys, J.P., Groot, G. de, Hollander, A.P., Vervoorn, K., Mackay, R. and Savelberg, H.H.C.M. (1988) Active drag related to body dimensions. In: Ungerechts, B. E., Reischle, K. and Wilke, K. (Eds.), Swimming Science V. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, Ill., pp. 31-37.
Kemper, H.C.G., Frings-Dresen, M., Looze, M.P. de and Toussaint, H.M. (1994) Ergonomics of refuse collection in the Netherlands. In: Mc Fadden, S., Innes, L. and Hill, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the Int. Ergonomics Association. Human Factors Association of Canada, Toronto, pp. 234-235.
Kingma, I., Looze, M.P. de and Toussaint, H.M. (1993) The evaluation of a practical model estimating lumbar moments in occupational activities. In: Bouisset, S., Mitral, S. and Monod, H. (Eds.), Abstract book XIVth Congress of the ISB. Paris, pp. 682-683.
Kingma, I., Looze, M.P. de, Toussaint, H.M., Adams, M.A. and Baten, C.T.M. (1996) 2D versus 3D modelling in asymmetric lifting. In: Blanchi, J. P., Dimnet, J. and Hoecke, J. v. (Eds.), Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on 3-D analysis of human movement. Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, pp. 118-121.
Looze, M.P., Kingma, I., Bussmann, J.B.J. and Toussaint, H.M. (1991) Validation of a dynamic linked segment model applied to lifting. In: Marshall, R. W., Wood, G. A., Elliot, B. C. and Ackland, T. R. (Eds.), Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress on Biomechanics. Perth, Western Australia, pp. 217-218.
Looze, M.P. de, Stassen, A., Markslag, A.M.T. and Toussaint, H.M. (1994) Low back stress in different methods of refuse collecting. In: Mc Fadden, S., Innes, L. and Hill, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the Int. Ergonomics Association. Human Factors Association of Canada, Toronto, pp. 417-419.
Niklas, A., Ungerechts, B.E., Hollander, A.P., Fuhrmann, P., Hottowitz, R., Toussaint, H. and Berger, M. (1993) Determination of the active drag in swimming by means of a swimming flume. In: Bouisset, S., M tral, S. and Monod, H. (Eds.), Abstract book XIVth Congress of the ISB. Paris, pp. 946-947.
Onodera S, Nishimura K., Ono K., Seki K., Nishioka D., Okamoto T., Oyanagi E., Senoh N., Kawano H., Ogita F. & Toussaint H. M. (2006). Changes in cross sectional area of inferior vena cava during arm cranking exercises in water. In: Vilas-Boas J.P., Alves F. & Marques A. (Eds.) Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X. (pp. 161-163). Porto: Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences.
Ogita F., Tanaka T., Tamaki H., Wagatsuma A., Hamaoka T. & Toussaint H. M. (2006). Metabolic and mechanical characteristics of Olympic female gold medalist. In: Vilas-Boas J.P., Alves F. & Marques A. (Eds.) Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X (pp. 194-197). Porto: Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences.
Toussaint, H.M. (1992) Performance determining factors in front crawl swimming. In: MacLaren, D., Reilly, T. and Lees, A. (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Swimming Science VI. E&FN Spon, London, pp. 13-32.
Toussaint, H.M. (1994) The determination of (over-) training effects in swimming. In: D'Hooghe, M. (Eds.), Congress of Sports Medicine of the A.Z. St-Jan. Brucosport, Brugge, pp. 53-57.
Toussaint, H.M., Avis, F.J. and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van (1987) A comparison of two measurement techniques in evaluating a circuit weight training program. In: Jonsson, B. (Eds.), Biomechanics X-B. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., pp. 753-756.
Toussaint, H.M., Baar, C.E. van, Langen, P.P. van, Looze, M.P. de and Dieën, J.H. van (1992) The function of the leg muscles in the back- and leglift (abstract). In: Hagberg, M. and Kilbom (Eds.), International Scientific Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders PREMUS. Arbetsmilj institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 290-292.
Toussaint, H.M. and Commissaris, D.A.C.M. (1995) Effect of weight expectation on balance related anticipatory movements prior to lifting a load. In: H kkinen, K., Keskinen, K. L., Komi, P. V. and Mero, A. (Eds.), Xth ISB Congress abstract book. Gummerus, Jyv skyl, pp. 924-925. Toussaint, H.M., Commissaris, D.A.C.M. and Dieën, J.H. van (1997) Loading of the lumbar spine: Effect of load expectation. In: Seppälä, P., Luoparjärvi, T., Nygård, C.-H. and Mattila, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, pp. 228-230.
Toussaint, H.M., Groot, G. de, Hollander, A.P., Ingen Schenau, G.J. van, Vervoorn, K., Best, H. de, Meulemans, A. and Schreurs, A.W. (1988) Measurement of efficiency in swimming man. In: Ungerechts, B. E., Reischle, K. and Wilke, K. (Eds.), Swimming Science V. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, Ill., pp. 45-52.
Toussaint, H.M., Helm, F.C.T. van der, Elzerman, J.R., Hollander, A.P., Groot, G. de and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van (1983) A power balance applied to swimming. In: Hollander, A. P., Huijing, P. A. and Groot, G. d. (Eds.), Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, Ill., pp. 165-172.
Toussaint, H.M. and Hollander, A.P. (1994) Mechanics and energetics of front crawl swimming. In: Miyashita, M., Mutoh, Y. and Richardson, A. B. (Eds.), Medicine and Science in Aquatic Sports. Karger, Basel, pp. 107-116.
Toussaint, H.M., Hollander, A.P., Berg, C. van den and Vorontsov, A. (2000) Biomechanics of swimming. In: Garrett, W. E. and Kirkendall, D. T. (Eds.), Exercise and Sport Science. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 639-660.
Toussaint, H.M., Hollander, A.P., Groot, G. de, Kahman, R. and Ingen Schenau, G.J. van (1990) Power of leg kicking in front crawl swimming. In: Berme, N. and Capozzo, A. (Eds.), Biomechanics of Human Movement. Bertec Corporation, Worthington, Ohio, pp. 456-459.
Toussaint, H. M. 2005. Naar Evidence Based Practice in de Lichamelijke Opvoeding. Lichamelijke Opvoeding. 93:14-18.
Toussaint H.M., van der Meer S., de Niet M. & Truijens M.J. (2006). Propelling efficiency in sprint front crawl swimming. In: Vilas-Boas J.P., Alves F. & Marques A. (Eds.) Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X (pp. 279-282). Porto: Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences. Toussaint H.M. (2006). Analysis of front-crawl swimming performance-factors using the MAD-system: Science meets practice. In: Hellard P., Sidney M., Fauquet C. & Lehénaff D., Hellard P., Sidney M., Fauquet C. & Lehénaff D.Hellard P., Sidney M., Fauquet C. & Lehénaff D.s. First International Symposium Sciences and Practices in Swimming. Paris: Atlantica. p 51-57.
Toussaint H. M. (2006). Technology applied to optimise training for improvement of front-crawl swimming performance. In: Vilas-Boas J.P., Alves F. & Marques A. (Eds.) Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming X. (pp. 205-210). Porto: Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences.
Toussaint, H. M. (2007). Strength power and technique of swimming performance: Science meets practice. In: Leopold, W. (Eds.), Schwimmen Lernen und Optimieren. Deutsche Schwimmtrainer - Vereinigung e.V., Beucha, Deutschland, pp. 43-54.

Theses

Toussaint, H.M. (1988) Mechanics and Energetics of Swimming. PhD. thesis,Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Looze, M.P. de (1992) Mechanics and energetics of repetitive Lifting. PhD. thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Dieën, J.H. van (1993) Functional load of the low back. PhD. thesis, Vrije Univesiteit, Amsterdam
Commissaris, D.A.C.M. (1997) The control of equilibrium in bimanual, whole-body lifting tasks; A biomechnical approach. PhD. thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Kingma, I. (1998) Challenging gravity: the mechanics of lifting. PhD. thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
Ogita, F. (2000) Aerobic and anaerobic energy release during swimming, PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
Cappaert, J. M. (2005) Biomechanical evaluation of propulsion and drag in front crawl swimming. PhD. Thesis Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Textbook

Ingen Schenau, G.J. van and Toussaint, H.M., 1997. Biomechanica: Theoretische mechanica toegepast op het bewegen van de mens. VU Boekhandel, Amsterdam.

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