Roland Mark Schoeman (born 3 July 1980) is a South African competitive swimmer and was a member of the South African swim team at the 2000 Olympic Games, 2004 Olympic Games (, 2008 Olympic Games, and the 2012 Olympic Games. He is also a member of The Race Club and current world record holder in the short-course 50 meters freestyle with a time of 20.30 seconds.
He won a gold, silver and bronze medal at the 2004 Olympic Games; three gold, a silver and a bronze World Championship medals, as well as four gold, three silvers and three bronzes at the Commonwealth Games. He set new South African records in the 100m freestyle (48.69 s), 50m freestyle (22.04 s), 100m butterfly (52.73 s) and 50m butterfly (23.65 s) events.
He won a gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens in the 4 × 100m freestyle, a silver medal in the 100m freestyle event and a bronze in the 50m freestyle. Three of the men's 100m freestyle team were in the team that broke the record and won gold at the 2006 Commonwealth Games. He also claimed golds in the 100m freestyle and 100m butterfly.
Schoeman was voted the African Swimmer of the Year by Swimming World in 2004, 2005 and 2006; and the South African Swimmer of the Year in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. He was elected South African Sports Star of the Year in 2004.
In 2007, he received the South African Presidential Award Order of Ikhamanga in Silver, awarded for excellent achievements in the field of swimming.
At the 2005 FINA World Championships in Montreal, Canada he won two gold medals [50 m Butterfly (in a world record time of 22.96 s) and Freestyle (21.69 s, the second fastest time in history at the time)]. He also claimed a silver in 100m freestyle.
At the 2007 FINA World Championships in Melbourne Australia he successfully defended his 50m butterfly title. He also made the final of the 50 m and 100 m freestyle and was part of the 4×100 m freestyle relay team that finished fourth. On 6 September 2008 Roland Schoeman set a new short course meters world record of 20.64 at South African Nationals. Schoeman, lost his world record in late 2008 but regained his record. At the Short Course World Record at South Africa Championships, Schoeman swam a 20.30 seconds of the 50 meter freestyle short course (25 m pool). In the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Schoeman, aged 32, advanced to the final in the 50m freestyle, clocking a 21.80 to finish .46 seconds behind the gold medal winner, Florent Manaudou.