Sunburn

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noun - A sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun. Usually, normal symptoms in humans and other animals consist of red or reddish skin that is hot to the touch, general fatigue, and mild dizziness. An excess of UV radiation can be life-threatening in extreme cases. Exposure of the skin to lesser amounts of UV radiation will often produce a suntan. Excessive UV radiation is the leading cause of primarily non-malignant skin tumors.

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Prevention

Sunscreen is widely agreed to prevent sunburn, and some types of skin cancer. Clothing, including hats, is considered the preferred skin protection method. Moderate sun tanning without burning can also prevent subsequent sunburn, as it increases the amount of melanin, a skin photoprotectant pigment that is the skin's natural defense against overexposure. Importantly, both sunburn and the increase in melanin production are triggered by direct DNA damage. When the skin cells' DNA is damaged by UV radiation, type I cell-death is triggered and the skin is replaced.

Goggle Tan

A goggle tan (or Raccoon eyes or Panda eyes) is the division on a swimmer's temple and around their eyes between skin of pronounced paleness relative to the rest of their face that has been suntanned by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation in a pool, outdoors or in the open water.

Swim cap tan

A swim cap tan (or cap tan) is the division on a swimmer's forehead between the skin of pronounced paleness relative to the rest of their face that has been suntanned by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation in a pool, outdoors or in the open water. It is caused by wearing of a swim cap on the head while swimming outdoors.

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